By , the forces of one of Zapata's lieutenants, Pancho Villa, had forced their way north through Chihuahua. When the revolutionaries under Pancho Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico, on March 9, , the attack triggered the last large-scale cavalry operation in U. A force consisting of three cavalry regiments, two infantry regiments, and a contingent of artillery crossed into Mexico in two columns.
They spent a total of eleven months following the raiders and attempting to punish them for the incursion into the United States. Some minor skirmishing occurred, and some of the raiders were killed or captured, but beyond disrupting the revolutionaries' lines of supply and communication, the Punitive Expedition had little long-term impact on the border.
A new group of mounted guards or inspectors was authorized by Congress in March At this time most continued to patrol on horseback, but a few automobiles were being used. Milton utilized a stripped-down Model T Ford for some of his patrols. Although he possessed a broad authority as an Immigration Inspector, he still was concerned mostly with the illegal entry of Chinese immigrants. During and immediately following the Punitive Expedition, the U.
By , political turmoil in Mexico and the termination of steamship travel between China and Mexico had slowed illegal immigration from China to a trickle. The comings and goings of Mexican nationals across the border seldom merited any attention. Thousands crossed daily or with the crop seasons to obtain laborer jobs. This changed significantly, however, when Congress passed the Literacy Act in It required any person crossing the border for work to be able to read and write in some language.
Many of the laborers who had crossed from Mexico could not meet these requirements. The result was a big increase in illegal entry between the ports of entry. The next year Congress enacted the Passport Act to deter the entry of enemy agents and spies into the country. Once again, U. Cavalry units were assigned to patrol the southwest border to augment civilian interdiction efforts. Civilian law enforcement professionals continued their work on the border alongside the cavalrymen.
El Paso museum sheds light on Border Patrol's history, mission
They were variously referred to as mounted guards, mounted watchmen, or mounted inspectors. They were hired under a mix of civil service standards, and were paid by various agencies. Employed at grade levels below those of existing patrol officers and lacking Civil Service protections, many were released at the end of World War I. Customs line riders, later called Customs Patrol Inspectors, continued to be an on-and-off presence on the border.
They were especially active for several years after , when the Volstead Act was enacted to enforce the prohibition on liquor brought about by the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The Customs Patrol was officially disbanded after the formation of the U. Border Patrol in , but was, from time to time, resurrected. Until the early s, when they were again disbanded and converted to Sky Marshals or Customs Investigators, Customs Patrol officers were assigned to work the same border areas worked by Border Patrol agents. Ostensibly, the officers with Customs interdicted goods, while the Border Patrol officers interdicted persons.
In , quota laws enacted by Congress severely limited the numbers of certain nationalities who could apply for legal residence in the United States.
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The impact of these laws was felt most acutely in many of the northern European nations, the source of much of the earlier migration into the United States. The result was an increase in the smuggling of Europeans into the country to join friends and relatives already living in the United States. A major overhaul of immigration laws in reunited the separate bureaus of Immigration and of Naturalization within the Department of Labor to form the modern-day Immigration and Naturalization Service INS.
This new INS was charged with administering all of the laws relating to foreign nationals and with patrolling the U. Chinese Division Immigration Inspectors. The changeover was not immediate, however. Jeff Milton continued performing his duties as an Immigration Inspector in various parts of Arizona and California up until , when he finally took a well-deserved retirement.
An early recruitment effort for Border Patrol included the following announcement in the Daily International newspaper from Douglas, Arizona, on March 16, The newly organized border patrol is looking for new men and an examination for positions will be held at Douglas and at centrally located places in the state some time after April The patrol, which is a branch of the immigration service, will accept no man unless he is big and strong and fearless. He must have experience in cowboy work; tracking and general border occupations and he must have had service in some highly organized police unit or in some regular army.
They must be between 23 and 45 years of age and must have had at least three years' experience in general ranch work along the border. This qualification is necessary because the principal work of these men is border riding, which is done mainly on horseback. Applicants must measure at least 5 feet 7 inches in height and be well proportioned, they must be of good moral character, honest and courageous. At times during our nation's history, the border between the ports of entry has been patrolled other than by military or law enforcement officers.
Outbreaks of diseases, such as "hoof and mouth disease" during the last two centuries, prompted assignment of agricultural specialists along the border. Known as "tick riders," or mounted agricultural inspectors, they were assigned to patrol the border for foreign livestock. They exterminated animals crossing the border to eliminate the potential for the spread of disease to U. Department of Justice. INS continued as the lead agency for border enforcement between official ports of entry until it was disbanded in March Following a reorganization triggered by the attacks by foreign operatives on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, , Border Patrol was given a new look.
Immigrants coming into the country illegally through ports of entry are the responsibility of Customs. Border Patrol agents retain responsibility for aliens entering illegally between the ports. Border Patrol is assigned 5, miles of the Canadian border, 1, miles of the Mexican border, and the coastal waters of Florida and Puerto Rico. The U. Coast Guard patrols for illegal entries coming by sea or air to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coasts.
At America's borderline ports of entry, other U. But Border Patrol's mission remains largely the same as it always was: to manage, control, and protect the nation's border between ports of entry and to keep terrorists and their weapons out of the country. It has largely been forgotten, but during World War II agents kept an eye out for Nazi and Japanese infiltrators and spies coming across the border.
Now they watch for terrorists. With the projected levels of manpower, increased effectiveness of technology, and expanded legal remedies, Border Patrol, along with its sister agencies, may be able to effectively control the border for the first time in its history. Time will tell if America's lawmakers and voters sustain the support to let them. Agents receive basic training at a police academy. Increasingly agents must master computers, remote cameras, and other complex tools.
One of the slogans currently used in recruiting new agents proclaims "This isn't the old Border Patrol," but in some cases, sons and daughters follow their parents in uniform. At least one family, the Colburns, boasts four generations of Border Patrol agents. Probationary agents—probies, trainees, or more recently, interns—are assigned to any of stations along the southern border with Mexico or the northern border with Canada. Their training is periodically supplemented, updated, and upgraded with special classes and schools for journeymen agents.
They may also volunteer for collateral duties and assignments. Others become dog handlers, range officers, air observers, intelligence officers, or color guard members. Many will be assigned to undercover operations within the agency or in other federal entities such as the Drug Enforcement Agency or the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Others will add their unique experience and their authority to enforce certain federal statutes to specialized task forces comprising federal, state, and local officers.
Like any job, especially those demanding quick and decisive staccato bursts of information and commands on the police radio, Border Patrol has its own blunt, single-syllable lingo. A typical transmission might sound like, "Whiskey 5. Yankee 9. The lower drag is cut," meaning that Yuma ground unit 9 is telling Wellton unit 5 that he has finished checking—cutting—a dirt road for footprints.
Air units, either a helicopter or plane, use the radio call-sign "Omaha" and pilots are known as "X-Ray units. A casual listener of radio traffic from Border Patrol trackers may think he has tuned into shop talk at a shoe store. Shoe prints must be described in sufficient detail to allow other agents to identify the same "sign" sight-unseen at another location. Common shoes may be described by type, such as pointed-toe cowboy boot, lugged work boot, running shoe, flip-flop, huarache, or irrigator boot.
Too, they may be described by manufacturer, such as "Converse" or "Nike," or they may be described as having a herring-bone or diamond pattern, ball bearings in the sole, or a sonar pattern in the heel or toe. The combination of shoe prints in a particular group—a cowboy boot, running shoe, and a lug sole, for example—provides a distinctive signature almost as defining as a license plate. And, as unbelievable as it may sound, groups composed of aliens from outside North America could often be identified before they were caught by the fact that their collective foot sign contained few of the types common to Mexicans and Central Americans.
This foot sign might be described to others as "Chinese," "Japanese," or "weird" tennis shoes. People who cross the border without permission or papers have been referred to as illegal aliens, illegal immigrants, UDAs undocumented aliens , and "wets," which is short for "wetback.
The term comes from the language aliens used to describe themselves, a Spanish-to-English translation of mojado , which means wet and refers to the fact that the aliens often crossed rivers or canals during their journey from Mexico into the United States and were still damp at the time of their apprehension. Some today refer to themselves as alambristas , which means fence jumpers. Agents call Mexicans who are in the country legally "Mexicans," reflecting their nationality or country of origin. Because of America's common border with Mexico and the disparity in economic levels in the two countries, a very high percentage of illegal aliens come from Mexico.
Illegal aliens from other countries are OTMs other than Mexicans , and they may represent any other country in the world. According to the U. Office of Immigration Statistics, Mexicans comprised Where did they enter the United States? The vast majority, From a decade high of 1,, apprehensions in , the total fell to , in , with Any foreigners, Mexican or other nationalities, are aliens. Those who hold legitimate papers such as visas, passports, and green cards, fall into a couple of dozen categories ranging from ambassadors to students, businessmen to tourists, guest workers to entertainers, and resident aliens to refugees seeking asylum.
The job of Border Patrol is to sort out who has valid papers and who doesn't.
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In Mexico, aliens crossing the border without visas or passport papers are called pollos chickens in counterpoint to the human smugglers, who are called polleros or coyotes. Pollero on one level means chicken farmer but has come to mean guide for pollos, illegal aliens. The predator-prey relationship of coyotes and chickens should not be taken humorously, for the coyotes are as likely to pluck or devour the pollos as to guide them.
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It is a ruthless trade, where humans are shuttled like cargo, held for payment—ransom, really—in filthy "safe-houses" which are anything but safe , or stolen by rival smugglers. Sometimes pollos are discarded in the desert to die if they can't keep pace with the fast-moving groups. The bottom line is profit margin, and deaths or injuries are seen by smugglers simply as costs of doing business.
For many decades, patrolling the border involved a minimal amount of technology. Cavalry and law enforcement officer alike relied mostly on a good mount, a handgun, and a rifle. An expansion of technology generally followed the end of each war fought by U. After World War I, automobiles began to replace animals as the primary form of transportation for border lawmen. The end of World War II saw the introduction of two-way radios into border enforcement. The Korean War brought the large-scale introduction of aircraft into border patrol efforts, and the Vietnam War introduced helicopters, remotely monitored sensors, and computer databases into common usage.
Despite the vast gains made in technology, one of the stocks in trade for border law officers remains the ancient art of "sign cutting. First used by humans in prehistoric times, the ability to track aided in hunting, in self-protection, and in conducting war. This skill, honed by daily practice through the decades, is one common link between all the various entities and individuals who have worked the border.
Native American scouts for the U. Army, Jeff Milton and his coworkers, and present-day agents all have used sign cutting to accomplish their mission. Through the years the tracking art has served many functions. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. I loved this book, as a retired Game and Fish Officer, and with a knowledge of the area in which this book focused, I could really relate. I was sad when the book ended. My praise to all the Border Patrol Agents, past and present. See all 10 reviews.
Most recent customer reviews. Published on March 20, Published on December 8, Customers who bought this item also bought. Pages with related products. See and discover other items: There's a problem loading this menu right now. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. View or edit your browsing history. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. As Bill Broyles and Mark Haynes sum it up, "Border Patrol is a hero job", one that too often goes unrecognized by the public.
Desert Duty puts a human face on the Border Patrol.
Desert Duty: On the Line with the U.S. Border Patrol
It features interviews with 19 active-duty and retired agents who have worked at the Wellton, Arizona, station that watches over what is arguably the most perilous crossing along the border - a sparsely populated region of the Sonoran Desert with little water and summer temperatures that routinely top degrees. The agents candidly discuss the rewards and frustrations of holding the line against illegal immigrants, smugglers, and other criminals - while often having to help the very people they are trying to thwart when they get into trouble in the desert.
As one agent explains, "The thrill is tracking 'em up before they die. It's a rough ol' way to go - run outta water in this desert". Covering a fifty-year span of law enforcement, Desert Duty reveals the patriotic sense of duty and compassionate calling that motivates the men and women who. While politicians and pundits endlessly debate immigration policy, U.
Border Patrol agents put their lives on the line to enforce immigration law. Calling it "a real tragedy any time you lose a law enforcement officer in the line of duty," Bonner said, "There are men and women who go out and risk their lives every night. It never gets easy and it seems to get harder every time you lose another brother from law enforcement. Terry last night is an unconscionable act of violence against the men and women of the Border Patrol and all those who serve and defend our country," Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano -- the former governor of Arizona -- said in a statement.
She said Terry's death "is a stark reminder of the very real dangers our men and women on the front lines confront every day as they protect our communities and the American people. She said authorities "will leave no stone unturned as we seek justice for the perpetrators" and offered her condolences to Terry's family. Jan Brewer ordered flags to be flown at half-staff to honor Terry. Brewer said Terry is survived by his parents, a brother and two sisters.
Terry is the third Border Patrol agent to be killed in the line of duty this year, the Customs and Border Protection agency says. Thirty-four agents have died in the line of duty in the past 15 years, according to agency figures. More than National Guard and Army troops were recently assigned to the Arizona-Mexico border through the bill. Federal officials said in July that human smuggling and illegal border crossings were on the rise in the Tucson, Arizona, sector of the border. Monday, Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents discovered a cross-border smuggling tunnel in Nogales after seizing more than 2, pounds of marijuana that was rolled in cylindrical bundles from a van, a statement from the agency said.