When Pilate discovered Jesus was from Galilee, he sent him to Herod who was not expecting him. That week a prisoner was to be released and this was apparently set up for Wednesday, Nisan 19th. This is when they became friends. Jesus died at the ninth hour, 3 p. Thanx for an interesting read. One thing I esp. That is a critical point. Therein lies much of the confusion when attempting to re-create the ancient world. Their material is priceless. I am convinced that it was, based on the statements in the synoptics.
Remember: An argument from silence is no argument. And what historical evidence is that based on? Maybe you can, considering your professional position and abilities? His reasons also drive my preference on this issue. Note about two holy days at the beginning and end of Passover. Some commenters on here are confused about this. In the land of Israel, including Jerusalem, Passover takes and has always taken seven days.
The first and last day are the holy days, when work is forbidden. Days are intermediate days, when work is allowed. The seder takes place on the first evening, the beginning of the first day. There is only one seder. This is how the holiday is described in the Bible. In the Diaspora, because of the uncertainty of an observed and announced calendar the rules predate the introduction of a calculated calendar , the entire holiday takes eight days.
The first two and last two are the holy days, when work is forbidden. The seder takes place twice, on the first and second evenings, the beginnings of the first and second days. Any discussion relevant to Jesus and the Last Supper, taking place in Jerusalem, would automatically have to be based on the first case, not the second. There would be only one holy day at the start, and only one seder.
Passover commemorates the Exodus of the Jewish peoples from Egypt. Their journey was long and hard, one which required them to leave behind the culture of slavery to attain true freedom. Jesus returned to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover with His disciples. The Seder not in existence yet, indeed!
Passover seems to be used loosely in the gospels, as covering the whole 7 days of unleavened bread. So for one to assume passover in the gospels is just referring to the 15th, at its start in the evening, would be a mistake. The 14th was the preparation for the 15th meal, which is why the lamb was slaughtered in the 14th in the day, preceding the evening start of the 15th. Lawyers make terrible investigators and historians, since they like to misplace emphasis in order to twist and distort, thereby enhancing what they promote, while belittling any other view point offered.
But if we are objectively looking for truth, we must dispose of prejudiced techniques in favor of ones that are unbiased and objective, so as to produce a more sound conclusion. Jesus was preparing for the evening beginning the 14th. He did not intend to have a full passover meal which I assume you call a Seder meal. After his death, the passover meal of the lamb, bitter greens, and unleavened bread took place, commemorating the passover angel and the departure of Israel after daybreak at some time.
So it was not a seder meal. It was the establishment of the new amended covenant long promised by Moses near to Deut. Since all mankind was now released from the sin of Adam, if they so chose, all would commemorate the emblems of the wine and bread on the evening that began the 14th. And at Pentecost, Jesus presented his bodily sacrifice to God in heaven, so that the body may never be seen again.
There are a lot of folks out there that believe that the last supper was a passover meal, or […]. Could it be that learning to live without a bagel is telling us something about what it means to […]. Actually, apart from the first day and the last day, there is no prohibition on ordinary work activities during Passover. I point this out because the author places a great deal of emphasis on the mistaken assumption that this is not the case:. In this context, it would appear that it is the author who has lost or more likely never had familiarity with the contemporary and continuing Jewish practice of Passover, as laid out in the Torah, where it is only the first day and the seventh day that are holy days where there can be no work:.
Accordingly, there is no reason to doubt the synoptic accounts on the basis of the fact that they place the arrest, trial and death of Jesus as taking place during Passover. For you to call people from the Jesus Seminar as scholars really takes the cake. You totally lost my attention at that point.
What a bunch of poppy cock. I am supportive of the results of this article: 1. It was also in the year 29 CE. Having just received a message relating to this article and seeing a renewed conversation here and at the risk of not staying on topic I would like to submit to the kind and thoughtful members the following possibility that I did not see addressed in this article. I am wondering if Mark was even attempting to present any temporal time related aspect in Mark ? Was his point the place not the time? Now I am not promoting this translation, clearly this is a very rare translation of this verse but I present it to show what I am thinking as a non-time specific rendering of the Greek.
Now in the Greek Matthew is very close to Mark and could be rendered the same in English. Now Luke does make a change and does seem to be addressing the temporal aspect of this passage. Now I am not well versed in Greek but a brief look shows that this Greek word is not a aorist tense and is sometimes translated as coming which would be an interesting change to the timing aspect of this passage.
So in conclusion I am wondering if Mark and subsequently Matthew were NOT addressing the timing of this passage event. Again I speculate but maybe this issue was raised and being discussed at the time of Luke who therefore makes an attempt to clarify the issue? Given John was likely to be the last of the Gospel to be written maybe he was simple being very clear on the timing of this event to settle the matter? So my question is, are we confusing what seems to be a contradiction that was really a progressing clarification? I am not stating this as my position on this but submit this for consideration by the wider audience.
However, history and rabbinic tradition testify that the rabbinic authorities would break the law to destroy an enemy. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrim of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others … and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa II], desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent.
A Jew could kill or rob from Gentiles with no rabbinic penalty, but this would be to break the 6th and 8th commandments against murder and theft. A gentile [who kills] a gentile and a gentile who kills an Israelite are liable [for punishment]. An Israelite [who kills] a gentile is exempt. Concerning thievery? The term apikorsim refers to Jews who deny the Torah and the concept of prophecy.
If there is the possibility, one should kill them with a sword in public view. If that is not possible, one should develop a plan so that one can cause their deaths. What is implied? I shall return the ladder to you soon. With regard to a gentile idolater with whom we are not at war, a Jewish shepherd of small livestock, and the like, by contrast, we should not try to cause their deaths. It is, however, forbidden to save their lives if their lives are threatened.
For example, if such a person fell into the sea, one should not rescue him. The evidence is thus clear, breaking rabbinic and secular law was allowed by the rabbis in order to do away with one perceived as an enemy. The synoptic gospels are thus accurate in this regard and present a view of 1st Century C. Judaism consistent with historical evidence. The day before Passover, is also a Holiday on the Jewish Calendar. Since it was the 1st born that were saved during the Passover, first born Jews celebrate another Holiday called the Feast of the First Born.
Jesus was the 1st Born of his family and therefore held a regular traditional Seder the night before he went to the cross. This meal was held on Wednesday night, the day before the lamb was slain in the temple. On Thursday, Jesus was sent to the cross, the lamb in the temple was slain at the time of Jesus death. Jesus was put in the cave on Thursday, he died on Thursday, no Friday. He rose on Sunday, in the ground a full 3 days and nights no matters how you count it. Any orthodox Rabbi knows about the Feast of the First born. I fail to see why this explanation of these events do no make the light of day.
There are scholars that say the early church gradually created the Eucharist from an early pot luck fellowship dinner. That could be considered to be under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. However it is such a radical change, there is no room for gradual development. The Seder change to the Eucharist and the change from Sabbath worship to the first day of the week require deliberate decisive action. All twelve had to agree or there would have been conflict. Acts 15 records the first Jerusalem council. It was serious consideration of a much more minor matter that was an extension of revealed principles.
The lambs for the Passover were killed on Friday before the Seder. Jesus himself was killed on Friday as the Passover Lamb. However the historical record states lambs were killed on Thursday and Friday. Various reasons are given and some accounts are from many years later. The fact they exist does prove that there was a remembrance of the two day practice. It is known that the Essene teaching and practice was to celebrate the Seder the day before the rest of Israel.
Does this prove Jesus was Essene? Perhaps Jesus observed the Passover on the normal day in the prior years. This year He told them to prepare on Thursday. They knew this was to be exceptional. His followers were filled with anticipation. Many thought Jesus was going to reveal Himself as the Messiah and bring in the Messianic age. Everything about this Passover meal was exceptional. The normal practice was to celebrate in family groups, those without families were mixed in. Jerusalem was overflowing with pilgrims from all the diaspora for the Passover.
Those who traveled together from a town or synagog would camp and eat in close association. Most expected to sit on the floor in a circle around the common bowls. That is how they ate at home, all had to be in reach of the food. Ten people make a circle less than eight feet in diameter.
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Hundreds would fit in the large upper room. Jesus broke the normal practice for this Seder. He ate with His chosen twelve disciples. That meant they could not eat with their families. Should we suppose that the twelve left their families behind and went off by themselves? That would have been a horrible violation of social mores. Everyone came along, otherwise Jesus would have been publicly crude and selfish. What great man proclaiming love among his followers could do otherwise? Just because the Gospels do not mention them is no proof that all the rest were not there.
What about those He healed? Do you think Jairus whose daughter had been raised would have sought Jesus out? Would Zaccheaus have gone somewhere else? Counting the known followers of Jesus, adding family members quickly leads to a figure over The only ones missing would have had social obligations that kept them away. Joseph of Aramathia and Nicodemus were members of the Sanhedrin. The Centurion, whose servant was healed, may have been out of place.
The Picture of the Last Supper is changed from the Twelve at table to close to sitting in circles on the floor. The second image is much closer to the truth. The upper room was prepared for passover and available. Every space for miles around was packed tight, roofs, every bare patch of ground covered with campsites. How could a room have been available, much less a room prepared for passover celebration? Distant synagogs, Alexandria, Antioch, Babylon, had guest houses for their members when they came to Jerusalem.
There were a reported of such guest houses in Jerusalem. The Torah mandated all Israelites come to the Temple for three festivals a year. In between the festivals those places were for students and travelers from their community. It was not just the upper room that was prepared and empty.
The whole large house was ready for a large contingent and equipped to prepare their feast. That was not a major task when scattered at many camp sites but requires an establishment with great facilities. Records state between , and , lambs where sacrificed for Passover in the years before the Temple was destroyed. Perhaps the pilgrims had a problem, the rabbi fell and was injured, slowing their travel.
A messenger was sent to inform the people at the house. Jesus told the disciples they would meet a man carrying water, who would lead them to the house. That still does not explain why the steward would permit them to use the building, unless, he realized this was by divine intervention. He might have sent the man for water, anticipating their immanent arrival.
Then another messenger came saying they were further delayed until the next day. If it was a house for Essenes, they would have been forced to celebrate Passover where they stopped and not at the house. It was custom, not law, that the lamb was sacrificed at the Temple. The steward of the house, the disciples, recognized a miracle. Jesus knew this house was available before the steward of the house knew. The Decalog mandates Sabbath worship. How can the obedient faithful decide to break that commandment to worship on Sunday?
Just because Jesus rose from the grave on Sunday is not authority for them to make that change, without His clear command. They hurried back to tell the news and were present when Jesus appeared again. Very little is recorded. Could it be that the Sunday evening group had been praying? They might have been following the familiar synagog liturgy and then shared a snack?
Bread and wine? Did someone remind them that when they shared bread and wine Jesus commanded at His last supper with them, they were to share the bread as His body and wine as His blood. They might have joined in the prayer Jesus taught them. As they were remembering Him, did they feel His presence and realize He was standing in their midst?
Actually not mere imagination. Could He have said something to remind them He was present when they shared the bread and wine, remembering, celebrating the day He rose? The following Sunday more were present. Were they again following the synagog liturgy, concluding with the bread and wine as He commanded them?
Had He told them to meet on Sundays, and He would be with them in the bread and wine? Again Jesus appeared and spoke with them. The new covenant, the new creation, the new messianic age had begun. The annual elaborate Seder dinner of the first covenant becomes the weekly sharing of bread and wine. Was it on Sunday, Jesus appeared on the mount in Galilee to more than ? Did they worship following the synagog service and then share the bread and wine? It was on Sunday that the Holy Spirit was poured out on them all. Had they been praying the liturgy, sharing the bread and wine?
The worship of the Christian Church ever since is based on the synagog Service of the Word followed by the Service of the Eucharist. I think that only could have occurred by the clear direction of the Lord of the Church, Himself. See my web site for more.
I appreciate much of the material that I receive in BAR. However, I have to always read their material through a filter. Yet we rarely seem to hear from scholars with a more conservative bent. The Bible is the most important historical source and therefore deserves special attention. What is Easter? Is it mentioned in the bible? Or is it an ancient Roman pagan festival? Many religions teach to celebrate Easter and…with a traditional ham? It seems to have very little about the Resurection of Jesus. I wish BAS had clear restrictions on comments — that they stick to issues raised in the articles — and that comments were reviewed before posting to make sure they are relevant.
Another possibility, mentioned by some analysts, is that Jesus and His disciples may have followed one of the anti-establishment sects like the Dead Sea Essene community who had contended that the Temple priests were not following Torah properly, and not calculating the calendar of holy days correctly, thus substituting their own theological opinion as to the correct days to celebrate festivals. He did say on other occasions that ritual requirements should be kept when possible, but not when they were in conflict with human need hence, the Samaritan, unencumbered by the ritual purity rules of the Priest and the Levite, got his hands bloody and helped the injured man; and He healed on the Sabbath and allowed His disciples to glean a handful of grain from the fields on the Sabbath.
In this video, Dr. Hahn has a doctorate in covenant theology and does an incredible job investigating and explaining this whole mystery. In the REAL world, we often celebrate with several groups several different Passover seders in commemoration of Passover. We may have one at home, with our congregation and maybe even one with Christian friends.
Was He going to skip a last seder with His beloved friends? The author is trying to sell a book not live the life. Many posting above have the days of week wrong. Thus, the Last Supper was not celebrated on the Jewish Passover, which comes 24 hrs later. If, Nisan 15 had been on Friday …. The Trial occurred that night, before the cock crowed for Peter [and we] on morning of 14th. Next, they rushed Christ before Pilate in AM, for sentencing. Evermore at the Rt. Hand of the Father, King of Kings, Lord of all time and eternity.
I have been studying the creation calendar found in the book of Enoch and the instructions for Passover found in the book of Jubilees and the Torah. Both suggest the fourteenth day of the first month is a weekly Sabbath. Being a weekly Sabbath no work is done, no burden is brought into or out of a dwelling, no fire is to be kindled, no water is to be drawn.
With this in mind, the instructions for performing the Passover in the book of Jubilees and the Torah state the lamb is to be killed on the fourteenth day at evening, between sunset and sundown. The book of Jubilees states specifically that the lamb is not to be killed during any part of the daylight. The lamb is to be roasted by fire in the night at the beginning of the fifteenth day.
All of these instructions would validate the rules of the weekly Sabbath of the fourteenth being upheld. Is it only a recalling of that meal or […]. The Last-Supper was not a Passover-Seder meal but it was rather on the night before on Tuesday night. When the Jews burn the Khamets Leaven and have a last leaven supper. Thursday is the Passover during the daytime until sunset.
The Biur Kahmets meal is the last leavend meal before passover. The night before the Eve of Passover. The evil potential of this passage is nearly sufficient to ban religion altogether because of it potential to convert status into violence because the death of innocents became the defining event to mark the freedom of the Jews. That reality embodied into mankind can justify violence in the mind of mankind as the final solution for human conflict; it is the justification for muder, for war, for torture, and for defining failure and success. Thus, kings have been assassinated due to desire to alter history, and grab the power of violence, etc, all of which emerged because of religious convention, and the torture and harassment it has caused.
It gave rise to the concept of primogeniture upon which these evil methods have survived through centuries in nearly every country. Humanity which cannot see the disaster of this inhuman aspect of evil cannot save itself, and will eventually exterminate itself. The programming is anything but holy, and rests upon the reality of an ancient evil carried by humans through superstition into the present. Humanity must manage this evil trend for evil expression its allowed expression, and condemn it completely.
What a ridiculous and naive article. Do your homework! Call me foolish all you wish anyone at all, but I have never thought mercy to be very foolish, and indeed quite powerful ,humble and compassion as teachings go …. How blind do you have to be to languish within misery to not see the new testament of Jesus whereby laid aside were to be ways of cruelty and sacrifice as GOD so noted! Jesus ENTIRE LIFE was devoted to that mentality, so I fail to understand how so many here are so blind to that, yet just as so many still cling to their diets of ill health as is now prove by Sanjay Gupta and others , yet so many still cling to ideas which we really should Passover for something new, and compassionate; something Jesus was willing to die for, and stand up to the Pharisee brethren of his back then.
Oh the irony. I for one, agree that it was not a Seder meal for reasons stated. The Seder meal controversy is a tough one. The Last […]. Josephgpal—I am in total agreement that the Scriptures are clear that a day is from sunset to sunset. Your understanding of the Sabbaths and High Sabbaths is Scripturally correct. Also, as we know, Yeshua would NEVER break the law, either before or after the resurrection-He is NOT like the worldly leaders of this age or ages past who believe they are above the law—the state of this world is a testament to that fact. I too wrestled with this issue for years.
Then I realized that the modern Jewish timing of the celebration of Passover has them celebrating it on 15 Nisan. Yet God clearly commanded them in the Bible to celebrate it on the evening of the 14th which the way Jewish people count day would be the beginning of the 14th? What happened? This must have been changed at an early date. Many people point to the Babylonian captivity period for this change. We know the Jews came out with different names for their months, a different starting time for the their year and evidently also a messed up dating of the Passover.
Is there any surprise that Jesus would not be confused about the right date? After all later that same day He was to become the Lamb of God who took away the sins of the world in the ultimate fulfillment of this Holy Day of God! So, this last supper WAS the Passover meal. It was also evidently celebrated at that time by the Sadducees so they were not the only group observing the correct date.
However, it is clear to see that the worldly Passover group — led by the Pharisees who also dominated the Sanhedrin at that time — celebrated the Passover on the 15th. This is in perfect agreement with the synoptic gospels. John says Jesus died on the cross at 3 PM on the day of preparation. Most likely, it was! Let the great God make the judgement of heresy in me.
Judgement is His prerogative. Surprising that all of a sudden you switched to KJV! First of all I was not quoting directly from the Bible. I was explaining something. I use quotation marks when I take a direct verse from the Bible. Both needs time in the daylight. Mark Thus the crucifixion day ENDED and the ladies could not buy any spices in the night because the high Sabbath had already started! So, ……….. So spices acctivity cannot be on the crucifixion day.
Anyone can reject my position outright. And that is a wrong attitude in a public discussion. We need to concentrate on the topic NOT on the person! The next high day Sabbath was the first day of Unleavened Bread when no work was allowed to be done, followed by a working holyday and then by a weekly Sabbath! Amazing, it is not in Mark There is no time reference in Mark that tells when the spices were bought. However, Luke does give us a time reference.
They went to the sepulchre following Joseph and Nicodemus to learn where His body was going to be laid. Then they returned and prepared spices. This all occurred on Thursday, crucifixion day, also known as the last preparation day before the single day of Passover. So, prior to preparing the spices, they must have obtained those spices. So, they obtained the spices on Thursday. Not only that, but it was already sundown when they left the tomb, so they most likely obtained the spices prior to going to the tomb. So Luke gives us clues as to when the spices were bought and Mark tells us when those prepared spices were brought to the sepulchre.
J engages in paralogism either because he is confused, or because he wants to confuse others, or both. I could re-post those entries.
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That way you can learn without the interference of the hyenas who desire to consume your flesh. So, Faye was correct and I am correct. There were two back to back sabbaths at the end of crucifixion week. To Daniel. However, the Last Supper was on Wednesday and it was not a Passover meal. Christ taught us communion at the Last Supper.
Passover, according to the Scriptures, was two days later on Friday of that week. In fact, at the Last Supper, in Luke , our Messiah tells his disciples and us that He will not be eating the Passover this year. That year He was going to be our Passover sacrifice. If you want to re-write the Bible you can make it say anything you want. For further reading, see this article by Jonathan Klawans of Boston […]. The Bible says that after the annual Sabbath, the ladies went to the market and bought spices and prepared it.
Note it carefully! The Bible also says that after preparing the spices the ladies rested on the weekly Sabbath according to the commandment. Note again carefully! Thanks for the appreciation. Have a good day. To Faye, You are correct. Friday Passover and Saturday weekly sabbath are back to back. This Saturday is also the annual sabbath of the first day of the seven days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. However, please be aware that the Last Supper occurred on Wednesday of this week. One cannot get there by inserting the current Jewish calendar into time and plugging it into crucifixion week, nor can they plug in the Gregorian calendar.
Neither of these calendars were in existence at that time in history. What is the point of having a discussion of Christ and the crucifixion and the Last Supper, if one is unwilling to recognize the Self-existing One and the eternal life He holds out to those who will come to Him in humility and servitude? You must be born again. To Brian, Your point about artos and azumos has been covered here quite thoroughly by me, but it has been edited out by BAR.
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You are quite correct. However, your eucharist golden cup is an abomination. Christians have communion. Repent and be delivered. I thought calendar studies showed that there was likely a double Shabbat, a weekly Shabbat and Passover back to back. Thank for the thought provoking words. You guy s are quite transparent. So we are to believe that suddenly out of nowhere and all on the same day a Jehovah Witness Stephania ; a gnostic Krzysztof ; an ecumenical Ntube ; and an Orthodox Christian Brian just happened to be browsing the internet and found this comment section and found it worthwhile to leave a comment.
Oh, there is nothing new under the sun. And in John , Christ said He is truth. He is not confused by your antics and neither am I. But not to worry, as you do so much, how many are really out there looking for that which you are so desperately trying to obscure? And add to that, the editing done by BAR. Tisk, tisk. That is why to this day the Orthodox Church uses leavened risen bread in the Eucharist — because that is what Christ and the disciples ate on that day. We do what they did. But the Spirit of Christ wants us to accept challenges, to better our understanding.
The Lord be praised. Thanks all for details. D to A. D and resurrection, therefore all such narrative is always a story theological and not a history. It will help to resolve contradictions both in NT writers and in the interpreting it today. Google the Most accurate Bible. March 26 on the Hebrew Calendar it is Nisan That date is when Jesus Christ died for our sins. This memorial is observed Annually. Or just put forth the question. There are two glaring misrepresentations given in the article. One, that the Passover was a celebration of the Exodus from Egypt.
Nothing could be further from the truth. The Passover had and has absolutely nothing to do with leaving Egypt. When the Hebrews were eating the Passover, they had no clue that they would be leaving Egypt. It saves from the penalty of the second death. It is the first day of the seven days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread which commemorates their exodus, not Passover. Second, the Bible teaches that a day begins at sunrise, not sunset. Without this basic and necessary knowledge, it is impossible to understand that the four gospels are in agreement.
The Hebrews practiced a Biblical day from their beginnings until past the time that Christ ascended. A day start has since been corrupted by the Jews. The analysis by Bart Ehrman combined with other information e. Some combination of these circumstances would explain everything; but I am not going to guess exactly WHICH combination is the truth. And yes, the ancient Seder would not have been as elaborate as the later Rabbinical Hagaddah, just as early Christian worship was not as formal as the Catholic Mass, Orthodox Eucharist, or even Protestant services most likely it was closer to a Quaker meeting, with everyone silent until moved to testify.
The important thing is that all devout Jews celebrated a Passover dinner that was more elaborate than a daily meal like our own holiday gatherings at home with the family, and the Apostles and other close associates were His family. The Synoptic Gospels show Him comparing Himself to the Paschal Lamb being sacrificed, and John insists on taking that to the point of the exact timeline or possibly it WAS the exact timeline. The teaching is the same either way.
By the way, are there any other languages of traditionally Christian nations, other than English, that do NOT have a variation of Pesach as the word for Easter? I have wondered if there is a reason for this linguistic oddity. To this days Jews celebrate Passover two nights in a row, lest they had miscalculated the date of the New Moon and been off by one day. If Jesus had decided to be offered as a sacrifice for sin at the exact moment that lambs were being slaughtered in the Temple by their thousands, it only makes sense that he would celebrate Passover the first night only.
Thus the oddity of his statement that he would not celebrate it again when the expectation was that he would celebrate it again the very next night. Hi, Al. I agree with what you are saying about the complexity of slaughtering animals from our viewpoint today, but keep in mind that the Temple priests were experts with centuries of tradition and practice. For all we know, the lambs could have been bound when killed to minimize movement, and it is quite possible that all that was neceessary after the throat was cut was to collect a bit of blood that could be sprinkled on the altar.
All of that could have been done in seconds. The actual dressing and preparation of the lamb for roasting could then have been done at home, where the lamb would be eaten. In an assembly-line scenario, a relatively small number of Temple priests, perhaps numbering in the hundreds, could have dispatched quite a few lambs in just a few hours. Dan, I know that sounds right, but if you have ever actually slaughtered an animal the process is significantly more involved and time consuming. I now live in a rural area where people do this for real and watching it is somewhat disturbing to ex-city folks like me.
To reinforce the point about the seder again, not the Haggadah text : while the few central pieces of the seder are very old and probably pre-date the Babylonian exile, the bulk of the structured meal is Hellenistic, both in style and the names for some of its parts. It speaks of Alexandria and Antioch, not Shushan Susa. However, for a variety of reasons, the Babylonian Jewish community rose to dominance in the Jewish world between the early first and the mid-third centuries.
So most of textual elaboration of rabbinic Judaism as we know it today was filtered through its long-dominant culture, that stretched over almost a thousand years. Hence, the Haggadah text is mainly a product of that time and place and in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic. I get the impression that some scholars are confused about this. The theory that tries to date the seder late seems pretty dubious. Not only do the Samaritans who split from Judaism in the fifth century BCE, not the second do it, so do the Ethiopian Jews whose understanding of Judaism seems to partly predate the Babylonian exile.
The watershed of the destruction of the Second Temple gave rise to a large shifts in rabbinic practice. That shift already started before the Temple was destroyed, to enable Jewish practice in the pre-Destruction diaspora in the Greek- and Aramaic-speaking worlds. The seder as we know it today combines some very old basic practices, probably from immediately after the Babylonian exile, with a fully developed Hellenistic symposium dinner party. Another very important distinction is the difference not only between before and after the Destruction, but between what was done in the Land of Israel, especially in Jerusalem and in the Temple; and what was done outside the Land of Israel.
Again, rabbinic literature is a reliable guide to at least one type, and probably already the dominant type, of Jewish practice. A good example is the Amidah, the prayer that was said instead of making offerings in the Temple. Later, it became the full and only formal substitute for the offering system. Before, you could always go to Jerusalem and make the offerings, in which case, the Amidah was not necessary.
Why do the substitute when you can do the real thing? With all that in mind, it may be that what happened a in the Land of Israel, and especially in Jerusalem, b before the Temple was destroyed, was different from the pre-Destruction diaspora practice, which later became the sole source of Jewish practice, with the Temple practice remaining only a formally remembered memory. Shanks and admit being amused to see this decrepit theory being rehashed twice in the last two years on BAR online.
With simple, elegant reasoning, and a far more trustworthy grasp of ancient Passover liturgy, Edersheim shows convincingly that the four Gospels report the exact same Passion Week chronology: a Thursday Passover and communion meal followed by a Friday crucifixion on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Can anything less be expected from four divinely inspired texts reporting historic events?
But pitting John against the Synoptics is now a tradition of academic orthodoxy and inspired devotional scholars like Edersheim are discounted. So it goes. However it takes some real chutzpa to imagine one is in a position to perpetuate a gross misinterpretation John and in a public forum and presume against the creedal statements of the church. I suspect there is a more viable career in demonstrating the unity of the four Gospels as accurate historic records and thus promoting gospel literacy in the general populace, rather than impugning the credibility of texts and discouraging the study of them.
The Essenes used a different method to calculate Passover. In 30 AD it was a day earlier. Given the tradition that the room the last supper was eaten in was near or in the Essene quarter of Jerusalem, Jesus could easily have eaten an Essene Passover meal in 30AD and been tried on the eve of mainline Jewish Passover the next day. The Synoptics and John could both have been right. Documents aside, there must have been some spreading out of the Passover feast simply because of the daunting task of sacrificing the lambs.
Josephus suggests that , lambs were slaughtered for Passover. If the priests worked 24 hours without stopping, they would have to sacrifice and prepare 87 lambs per minute to get to this number. So, Rabbinical literature aside, in the real world there must have been some flexibility as to when lambs were slaughtered and when Passover meals were eaten. Interesting article. What that means exactly, in terms of how it was regularly practiced at the time of Christ, may be and probably should be debatable.
Most Christians today obviously identify the elements of a Passover meal with modern Jewish ritual right or wrong. I have sat in on demonstrations of the Christian interpretation of the Jewish Passover myself. The accounts of the Last Supper in the Synoptics and in John synchronize exactly when it is understood that they were using different times for the start of the day the Synoptics starting the day at sunset and John at sunrise , when it is understood that at least the first meal and probably all meals eaten during the Feast of Unleavened Bread was called a Passover meal in Luke , and when it is recalled that the Feast of Unleavened Bread started on 14th of Nisan in the Synoptics according to Exodus , and on the 15th of Nisan in John according to Leviticus The explanation of how all of these variables fit together to show that the Last Supper was held the night before THE Passover Seder i.
Since , lambs were sacrificed for Passover and many were not eaten in the Jerusalem area. Possibly a ruling was made that the day began when the sun started to go down after noon so many were killed on Thursday. Lambs could be delivered more than 80 miles away over the whole nation. Non Christians have Christmas trees — Hanukah bushes, everyone could have eaten lamb. We have no idea what a Galilean peasant seder was like. Certainly it was much simpler than the scholars hundreds of years later. Certain elements of the seder have Christian parallels 3 loaves, center broken, hidden found.
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April 2, at am. March 31, at pm. Alex Tennent says:. March 18, at pm. Pietas says:. February 23, at am. The Eucharist is the memorial of this sacrifice. The Church gathers to remember and to re-present the sacrifice of Christ in which we share through the action of the priest and the power of the Holy Spirit.
Through the celebration of the Eucharist, we are joined to Christ's sacrifice and receive its inexhaustible benefits. As the Letter to the Hebrews explains, Jesus is the one eternal high priest who always lives to make intercession for the people before the Father. In this way, he surpasses the many high priests who over centuries used to offer sacrifices for sin in the Jerusalem temple. The eternal high priest Jesus offers the perfect sacrifice which is his very self, not something else. Jesus' act belongs to human history, for he is truly human and has entered into history.
At the same time, however, Jesus Christ is the Second Person of the Holy Trinity; he is the eternal Son, who is not confined within time or history. His actions transcend time, which is part of creation. Jesus' one perfect sacrifice is thus eternally present before the Father, who eternally accepts it. This means that in the Eucharist, Jesus does not sacrifice himself again and again.
Rather, by the power of the Holy Spirit his one eternal sacrifice is made present once again, re-presented, so that we may share in it. Christ does not have to leave where he is in heaven to be with us. Rather, we partake of the heavenly liturgy where Christ eternally intercedes for us and presents his sacrifice to the Father and where the angels and saints constantly glorify God and give thanks for all his gifts: "To the one who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor, glory and might, forever and ever" Rev As the Catechism of the Catholic Church states, "By the Eucharistic celebration we already unite ourselves with the heavenly liturgy and anticipate eternal life, when God will be all in all" no.
When in the Eucharist we proclaim the Sanctus we echo on earth the song of angels as they worship God in heaven. In the eucharistic celebration we do not simply remember an event in history. Rather, through the mysterious action of the Holy Spirit in the eucharistic celebration the Lord's Paschal Mystery is made present and contemporaneous to his Spouse the Church. Furthermore, in the eucharistic re-presentation of Christ's eternal sacrifice before the Father, we are not simply spectators. The priest and the worshiping community are in different ways active in the eucharistic sacrifice.
The ordained priest standing at the altar represents Christ as head of the Church. All the baptized, as members of Christ's Body, share in his priesthood, as both priest and victim. The Eucharist is also the sacrifice of the Church. In the Eucharist, the sacrifice of Christ becomes the sacrifice of the members of his Body who united to Christ form one sacrificial offering cf. As Christ's sacrifice is made sacramentally present, united with Christ, we offer ourselves as a sacrifice to the Father. Lumen Gentium , no. In the celebration of the Eucharist, the glorified Christ becomes present under the appearances of bread and wine in a way that is unique, a way that is uniquely suited to the Eucharist.
In the Church's traditional theological language, in the act of consecration during the Eucharist the "substance" of the bread and wine is changed by the power of the Holy Spirit into the "substance" of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. At the same time, the "accidents" or appearances of bread and wine remain.
Thomas Aquinas in their efforts to understand and explain the faith. Such terms are used to convey the fact that what appears to be bread and wine in every way at the level of "accidents" or physical attributes - that is, what can be seen, touched, tasted, or measured in fact is now the Body and Blood of Christ at the level of "substance" or deepest reality.
This change at the level of substance from bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ is called "transubstantiation. This is a great mystery of our faith—we can only know it from Christ's teaching given us in the Scriptures and in the Tradition of the Church.
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Every other change that occurs in the world involves a change in accidents or characteristics. Sometimes the accidents change while the substance remains the same. For example, when a child reaches adulthood, the characteristics of the human person change in many ways, but the adult remains the same person—the same substance.
At other times, the substance and the accidents both change. For example, when a person eats an apple, the apple is incorporated into the body of that person—is changed into the body of that person. When this change of substance occurs, however, the accidents or characteristics of the apple do not remain.
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As the apple is changed into the body of the person, it takes on the accidents or characteristics of the body of that person. Christ's presence in the Eucharist is unique in that, even though the consecrated bread and wine truly are in substance the Body and Blood of Christ, they have none of the accidents or characteristics of a human body, but only those of bread and wine. In order for the whole Christ to be present—body, blood, soul, and divinity—the bread and wine cannot remain, but must give way so that his glorified Body and Blood may be present. Thus in the Eucharist the bread ceases to be bread in substance, and becomes the Body of Christ, while the wine ceases to be wine in substance, and becomes the Blood of Christ.
Yes, for this way of being present corresponds perfectly to the sacramental celebration of the Eucharist. Jesus Christ gives himself to us in a form that employs the symbolism inherent in eating bread and drinking wine. Furthermore, being present under the appearances of bread and wine, Christ gives himself to us in a form that is appropriate for human eating and drinking. Also, this kind of presence corresponds to the virtue of faith, for the presence of the Body and Blood of Christ cannot be detected or discerned by any way other than faith.
That is why St. Bonaventure affirmed: "There is no difficulty over Christ's being present in the sacrament as in a sign; the great difficulty is in the fact that He is really in the sacrament, as He is in heaven. And so believing this is especially meritorious" In IV Sent. I, art. On the authority of God who reveals himself to us, by faith we believe that which cannot be grasped by our human faculties cf. In everyday language, we call a "symbol" something that points beyond itself to something else, often to several other realities at once. The transformed bread and wine that are the Body and Blood of Christ are not merely symbols because they truly are the Body and Blood of Christ.
John Damascene wrote: "The bread and wine are not a foreshadowing of the body and blood of Christ—By no means! At the same time, however, it is important to recognize that the Body and Blood of Christ come to us in the Eucharist in a sacramental form. In other words, Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine, not in his own proper form. We cannot presume to know all the reasons behind God's actions. God uses, however, the symbolism inherent in the eating of bread and the drinking of wine at the natural level to illuminate the meaning of what is being accomplished in the Eucharist through Jesus Christ.
There are various ways in which the symbolism of eating bread and drinking wine discloses the meaning of the Eucharist. For example, just as natural food gives nourishment to the body, so the eucharistic food gives spiritual nourishment. Furthermore, the sharing of an ordinary meal establishes a certain communion among the people who share it; in the Eucharist, the People of God share a meal that brings them into communion not only with each other but with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Similarly, as St. Paul tells us, the single loaf that is shared among many during the eucharistic meal is an indication of the unity of those who have been called together by the Holy Spirit as one body, the Body of Christ 1 Cor To take another example, the individual grains of wheat and individual grapes have to be harvested and to undergo a process of grinding or crushing before they are unified as bread and as wine.
Because of this, bread and wine point to both the union of the many that takes place in the Body of Christ and the suffering undergone by Christ, a suffering that must also be embraced by his disciples. Much more could be said about the many ways in which the eating of bread and drinking of wine symbolize what God does for us through Christ, since symbols carry multiple meanings and connotations. During the celebration of the Eucharist, the bread and wine become the Body and Blood of Christ, and this they remain.
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They cannot turn back into bread and wine, for they are no longer bread and wine at all. There is thus no reason for them to change back to their "normal" state after the special circumstances of the Mass are past. Once the substance has really changed, the presence of the Body and Blood of Christ "endures as long as the Eucharistic species subsist" Catechism , no.
Against those who maintained that the bread that is consecrated during the Eucharist has no sanctifying power if it is left over until the next day, St. Cyril of Alexandria replied, "Christ is not altered, nor is his holy body changed, but the power of the consecration and his life-giving grace is perpetual in it" Letter 83, to Calosyrius, Bishop of Arsinoe [ PG 76, ].
The Church teaches that Christ remains present under the appearances of bread and wine as long as the appearances of bread and wine remain cf. While it would be possible to eat all of the bread that is consecrated during the Mass, some is usually kept in the tabernacle. The Body of Christ under the appearance of bread that is kept or "reserved" after the Mass is commonly referred to as the "Blessed Sacrament.
First of all, it is used for distribution to the dying Viaticum , the sick, and those who legitimately cannot be present for the celebration of the Eucharist. Secondly, the Body of Christ in the form of bread is to be adored when it is exposed, as in the Rite of Eucharistic Exposition and Benediction, when it is carried in eucharistic processions, or when it is simply placed in the tabernacle, before which people pray privately. These devotions are based on the fact that Christ himself is present under the appearance of bread. Many holy people well known to American Catholics, such as St.
John Neumann, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, St. The Body and Blood of Christ present under the appearances of bread and wine are treated with the greatest reverence both during and after the celebration of the Eucharist cf. Mysterium Fidei, nos. For example, the tabernacle in which the consecrated bread is reserved is placed "in some part of the church or oratory which is distinguished, conspicuous, beautifully decorated, and suitable for prayer" Code of Canon Law , Can. According to the tradition of the Latin Church, one should genuflect in the presence of the tabernacle containing the reserved sacrament.
In the Eastern Catholic Churches, the traditional practice is to make the sign of the cross and to bow profoundly. The liturgical gestures from both traditions reflect reverence, respect, and adoration. It is appropriate for the members of the assembly to greet each other in the gathering space of the church that is, the vestibule or narthex , but it is not appropriate to speak in loud or boisterous tones in the body of the church that is, the nave because of the presence of Christ in the tabernacle.
Also, the Church requires everyone to fast before receiving the Body and Blood of Christ as a sign of reverence and recollection unless illness prevents one from doing so. In the Latin Church, one must generally fast for at least one hour; members of Eastern Catholic Churches must follow the practice established by their own Church.
If "to receive" means "to consume," the answer is yes, for what the person consumes is the Body and Blood of Christ. If "to receive" means "to accept the Body and Blood of Christ knowingly and willingly as what they are, so as to obtain the spiritual benefit," then the answer is no. A lack of faith on the part of the person eating and drinking the Body and Blood of Christ cannot change what these are, but it does prevent the person from obtaining the spiritual benefit, which is communion with Christ.
Such reception of Christ's Body and Blood would be in vain and, if done knowingly, would be sacrilegious 1 Cor Reception of the Blessed Sacrament is not an automatic remedy. If we do not desire communion with Christ, God does not force this upon us. Rather, we must by faith accept God's offer of communion in Christ and in the Holy Spirit, and cooperate with God's grace in order to have our hearts and minds transformed and our faith and love of God increased. The attitude or disposition of the recipient cannot change what the consecrated bread and wine are.
The question here is thus not primarily about the nature of the Real Presence, but about how sin affects the relationship between an individual and the Lord. Before one steps forward to receive the Body and Blood of Christ in Holy Communion, one needs to be in a right relationship with the Lord and his Mystical Body, the Church - that is, in a state of grace, free of all mortal sin. While sin damages, and can even destroy, that relationship, the sacrament of Penance can restore it.
Paul tells us that "whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily will have to answer for the body and blood of the Lord. A person should examine himself, and so eat the bread and drink the cup" 1 Cor Anyone who is conscious of having committed a mortal sin should be reconciled through the sacrament of Penance before receiving the Body and Blood of Christ, unless a grave reason exists for doing so and there is no opportunity for confession. In this case, the person is to be mindful of the obligation to make an act of perfect contrition, that is, an act of sorrow for sins that "arises from a love by which God is loved above all else" Catechism , no.
The act of perfect contrition must be accompanied by the firm intention of making a sacramental confession as soon as possible. Christ Jesus, our Lord and Savior, is wholly present under the appearance either of bread or of wine in the Eucharist. Furthermore, Christ is wholly present in any fragment of the consecrated Host or in any drop of the Precious Blood. Nevertheless, it is especially fitting to receive Christ in both forms during the celebration of the Eucharist. This allows the Eucharist to appear more perfectly as a banquet, a banquet that is a foretaste of the banquet that will be celebrated with Christ at the end of time when the Kingdom of God is established in its fullness cf.
Eucharisticum Mysterium , no. Christ is present during the Eucharist in various ways. He is present in the person of the priest who offers the sacrifice of the Mass. According to the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of the Second Vatican Council, Christ is present in his Word "since it is he himself who speaks when the holy scriptures are read in the Church. Furthermore, he is likewise present in other sacraments; for example, "when anybody baptizes it is really Christ himself who baptizes" ibid. We speak of the presence of Christ under the appearances of bread and wine as "real" in order to emphasize the special nature of that presence.
What appears to be bread and wine is in its very substance the Body and Blood of Christ. The entire Christ is present, God and man, body and blood, soul and divinity. While the other ways in which Christ is present in the celebration of the Eucharist are certainly not unreal, this way surpasses the others.